Adeleke Olumide Ogunnoiki, Ademola Adefisayo Adeyemi.
Page No : 1-21
North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons and Missiles Programme: A Thorny Issue in United States Foreign Policy
North Korea, a diminutive state geographically located in the North East Asian (NEA) sub-region, has for decades been secretly developing its nuclear weapons and missiles programme which began during the Cold War era. Constituting a threat to regional/international peace and stability, the United States over the years has pursued a foreign policy aimed at getting Pyongyang to freeze or dismantle its nuclear and missile programmes. But isolated North Korea, in defiance to international sanctions and pressure, has conducted several nuclear weapon and ballistic missile tests, thus escalating tension on the Korean Peninsula in particular and the NEA sub-region at large. This paper critically examines North Korea’s nuclear weapons and missiles programme from 1956 to 2019 and how such a programme has been a thorny issue in U.S. foreign policy. For this study, the historical approach was adopted and the qualitative method of secondary data collection. This paper concluded that time is not on the side of America. If the U.S. eventually fails in the nearest future to diplomatically resolve the problematic nuclear and missile programmes of North Korea, it will be left with no other choice than to recognise North Korea as a de facto nuclear-armed state in a world where the 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) ought to be enforced, especially by the U.S.
Ramadan Ahmed Almijrab.
Page No : 22-30
Strategies Used in Translating English Taboo Expressions into Arabic
Untranslatability, or translation fails, takes place when it is impossible to build functionally relevant features of the situation into the contextual meaning of the target language text. Scholars in the field of translation studies distinguish between linguistic and cultural untranslatability: linguistic untranslatability is the failure to find a target language equivalent of the source language item. This translation void is due entirely to the differences between the two languages in question in our case English and Arabic. For cultural untranslatability what appears to be a quite different problem arises, however, when a situational feature, functionally relevant for the source language text, is completely absent in the culture of which the target language is a part. Taboo, on the other hand, can be defined as a cultural or religious custom that forbids people to do, touch, use or talk about a certain thing. Differences between cultures may cause more severe complications for the translator than do differences in language structure. Drawing on the actual translation between English as a lingua franca and a religiously oriented language like Arabic, this paper examines cultural untranslatability especially when dealing with taboo words and expressions. The paper also suggests certain strategies to be adopted when translating English taboo words into Arabic.
Temitope Francis Abiodun (Ph.D), Opatoki Oluwatosin Omolayo, Adeyemo Damilola Tomisin, Obi Collins Chinedu.
Page No : 31-43
Assessment of Boko Haram Insurgents’ Threats to Educational Development in the Northeast Nigeria: The Way Forward
One of the main obstacles to sustenance of stable educational system and policies in the Northeast, Nigeria is insurgent attacks on school activities in the region. The Boko Haram, whose name in Hausa, the dominant language in northern Nigeria, means “Western education is forbidden”, has targeted and killed teachers, education workers and students. The brutal insurgency has affected every strata of life in the region, particularly education. Educational activities in the region are exposed to threats and attacks as a result of lack intelligence gathering, government security forces’ use of schools for military purposes which places schools at risk of attack; failure on the part of government to adequately protect schools coupled with the in conducive learning environment the students are exposed to. However, high level of corruption and degree of “politics” in the activities of Nigerian Army constitute parts of the various factors leading to security risks bedeviling educational activities in the region. This study interrogates the threats posed by insurgent attacks on schools and learning activities in the Northeast Nigeria; and assesses the concerted efforts of the Nigerian government, private and religious organizations in combating the menace with a plan to proffer solutions to the disheartening phenomenon. The study concludes that, government security forces’ use of schools for military purposes which places schools at risk of attack; failure on the part of government to adequately protect schools; in conducive learning environment for students, insecurity, failure of government to provide basic necessities of life and corruption stand as a cog in the wheel to appreciable efforts at arresting the menace. It also submits that there is need for collaborative efforts of state and federal governments, Nigerian Army and Police Force and national assembly and state assemblies in the region to solve the problem.